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Roman Empire Symbol

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This is due to a regional English convention of depicting the tips of the wings pointing upward, while in continental heraldry, the tips of the wings were depicted downward "inverted".

Later, English heraldry partially adopted the continental convention, leading to a situation where it was unclear whether the two forms should be considered equivalent.

In German heraldry , no attitude other than "eagle displayed with wings inverted" ever became current, so that the simple blason of "eagle" Adler still refers to this configuration.

There is a gradual evolution of the standard depiction of the heraldic eagle over the course of the 12th to 16th centuries.

In the 12th to 13th century, the head is raised and the beak is closed. The leading edge of the wings in German heraldry termed Sachsen or Saxen , representing the main bones in the bird's wing, humerus and ulna are rolled up at the ends into a spiral shape, with the remiges shown vertical.

The tail is represented as a number of stiff feathers. By the later 14th century, the head is straightened, and the beak opens, with the tongue becoming visible.

The rolling-up of the leading edge of the wings disappears. The claws now form an acute angle relative to the body, occasionally receiving a "hose" covering the upper leg.

The tail feathers now spread out in curved lines. In the 15th century, the leading edge of the wings become half-circles, with the remiges no longer vertical but radiating outward.

The legs form a right angles. In the 16th century, eventually, the depiction of the eagle becomes more extravagant and ferocious, the animal being depicted "it in as ornamental and ornate a manner as possible".

Fox-Davies presents a schematic depiction of this evolution, as follows: [6]. The depiction of the heraldic eagle is subject to a great range of variation in style.

The eagle was far more common in continental European —particularly German —than English heraldry , and it most frequently appears Sable colored black with its beak and claws Or colored gold or yellow.

In its relatively few instances in Gallo-British heraldry e. An eagle can appear either single- or double-headed bicapitate , in rare cases triple-headed tricapitate eagle is seen.

Recursant describes an eagle with his head turned to the sinister left side of the field. In full aspect describes an eagle with his head facing the onlooker.

In trian aspect a rare, later 16th and 17th century heraldry term describes when the eagle's head is facing at a three-quarter view to give the appearance of depth — with the head cocked at an angle somewhere between profile and straight-on.

Overture or close is when the wings are shown at the sides and close to the body, always depicted statant standing in profile and facing the right side of the field.

Trussed - the term when depicting domestic or game birds with their wings closed - is not used because the eagle is a proud animal and the word implies it is tied up or bound by a net.

Addorsed "back to back" is when the eagle is shown statant standing in profile and facing the right side of the field and ready to fly, with the wings shown open behind the eagle so that they almost touch.

A good example is the eagle on the reverse side of the US quarter-dollar coin. Klee-Stengeln "clover-stems" are the pair of long-stemmed trefoil-type charges on the wings of 13th-century German depictions of the heraldic eagle.

They represent the upper edge of the wings and are normally Or yellow , like the beak and claws. Reinmar von Zweter fashioned the Klee-Stengeln of his eagle into a second and third head.

The informal term "spread eagle" is derived from a heraldic depiction of an eagle displayed i. The wings are usually depicted "expanded" or "elevated" i.

According to Hugh Clark, An Introduction to Heraldry , the term spread eagle refers to "an eagle with two heads, displayed", [8] but this distinction has apparently been lost in modern usage.

Most of the eagles used as emblems of various monarchs and states are displayed , including those on the coats of arms of Germany , Romania , Poland and the United States.

An eagle rising or rousant essorant is preparing to fly, but its feet are still on the ground.

It is the eagle's version of statant standing in profile and facing the right side of the field. There is sometimes confusion between a rousant eagle with displayed wings and a displayed eagle.

There is a debate over whether rousant or displayed is the eagle's default depiction. Volant describes an eagle in profile shown in flight with wings shown addorsed and elevated and its legs together and tucked under.

It is considered in bend "diagonal" as it is flying from the lower sinister heraldic left, from the shield-holder's point of view to the upper dexter heraldic right, from the shield-holder's point of view of the field.

However, the term "in bend" is not used unless a bend is actually on the field. Like the heraldic lion , the heraldic eagle is seen as dominating the field and normally cannot brook a rival.

When two eagles are depicted on a field, they are usually shown combatant , that is, facing each other with wings spread and one claw extended, as though they were fighting.

Respectant , the term used for depicting domestic or game animals shown facing each other, is not used because eagles are aggressive predators.

This term is used when three or more Eagles are shown on a field. They represent immature eagles. Originally the term erne or alerion in early heraldry referred to a regular eagle.

Later heralds used the term alerion to depict baby eagles. To differentiate them from mature eagles, alerions were shown as an eagle displayed inverted without a beak or claws disarmed.

To difference it from a decapitate headless eagle, the alerion has a bulb-shaped head with an eye staring towards the dexter right-hand side of the field.

This was later simplified in modern heraldry as an abstract winged oval. It supposedly had been inspired by the assumed arms of crusader Geoffrey de Bouillon , who supposedly killed three white eaglets with a bow and arrow when out hunting.

The Aquila was the eagle standard of a Roman legion , carried by a special grade legionary known as an Aquilifer , from the second consulship of Gaius Marius BC used as the only legionary standard.

It was made of silver , or bronze , with outstretched wings. The eagle was not immediately retained as a symbol of the Roman Empire in general in the early medieval period.

Neither the early Byzantine emperors nor the Carolingians used the eagle in their coins or seals. It appears that the eagle is only revived as a symbol of Roman imperial power in the high medieval period , being featured on the sceptres of the Ottonians in the late 10th century, and the double-headed eagle gradually appearing association with the Komnenos dynasty in the 11th and 12th centuries.

The eagle is used as an emblem by the Holy Roman Emperors from at least the time of Otto III late 10th century , in the form of the "eagle-sceptre".

Asimov on Numbers PDF. New York: Macmillan. More of the straight dope. Ballantine Books. Saint Louis Art Museum.

Archived from the original on 4 December Retrieved 10 January In Hornblower, Simon; Spawforth, Anthony eds. Oxford Classical Dictionary 3rd ed.

Oxford University Press. The Revised Latin Primer. Romanorum Imperatores Printed by Ian-Friderici Weissii. Page 41, upper right corner: "Decemb.

Page 42, upper left corner: "Febr. Page "IIXX. Page "XIX. Majestät in Pohlen und Page " IIIC []. Helmstadt, J.

Latin grammar. London: Longmans, Green, and Co. Handbook to life in ancient Rome 2 ed. A manual of Roman coins.

PhD thesis. On page it discusses many coins with "Leg. IIXX" and notes that it must be Legion Gachard : " II.

Bulletin de la Commission royale d'Historie , volume 3, pages — Op heden, tweentwintich ['twenty-two'] daegen in decembri, anno vyfthien hondert tweendertich ['fifteen hundred thirty-two'] Gegeven op ten vyfsten dach in deser jegewoirdige maent van decembri anno XV tweendertich [] vorschreven.

In de Wailly, Delisle : Contenant la deuxieme livraison des monumens des regnes de saint Louis, Volume 22 of Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France.

III s. Edited by Peter S. Baker and Michael Lapidge. Early English Text Society Jones, ed. Translated by David Bellos, E.

Harding, Sophie Wood, Ian Monk. American Journal of Archaeology. Course in Pharmaceutical and Chemical Arithmetic, 3rd ed. Retrieved 15 March Philadelphia, PA: W.

Saunders, p Dictionary of Latin Abbreviations. University of California Press. Retrieved 3 October Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.

Retrieved 13 January Manual for Pharmacy Technicians. Paris: Imprimerie nationale. March Latin script. History Spread Romanization Roman numerals.

Letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Diacritics Palaeography. Ancient Rome topics. Outline Timeline.

Foundation Kingdom overthrow Republic. Types of writing systems. History of writing Grapheme. Ideograms and pictograms. Jurchen Khitan large script Sui Tangut.

Demotic Hieratic Hieroglyphs. Arabic Persian Urdu Pakistan. Algerian Braille obsolete. American Braille obsolete. Accessible publishing Braille literacy RoboBraille.

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Wikimedia Commons. Download as PDF Printable version. Fasces carried within the Pomerium —the boundary of the sacred inner city of Rome—had their axe blades removed; within the city, the power of life and death rested with the people through their assemblies.

During times of emergency, however, the Roman Republic might choose a dictator to lead for a limited time period, who was the only magistrate to be granted capital punishment authority within the Pomerium.

Lictors attending the dictator kept the axes in their fasces even inside the Pomerium—a sign that the dictator had the ultimate power in his own hands.

There were exceptions to this rule: in 48 BC, guards holding bladed fasces guided Vatia Isauricus to the tribunal of Marcus Caelius , and Vatia Isauricus used one to destroy Caelius's magisterial chair sella curulis.

An occasional variation on the fasces was the addition of a laurel wreath , symbolizing victory. This occurred during the celebration of a Triumph - essentially a victory parade through Rome by a returning victorious general.

Previously, all Republican Roman commanding generals had held high office with imperium, and so, already were entitled to the lictors and fasces.

The modern Italian word fascio , used in the twentieth century to designate peasant cooperatives and industrial workers' unions, is related to fasces.

Numerous governments and other authorities have used the image of the fasces as a symbol of power since the end of the Roman Empire. It also has been used to hearken back to the Roman republic, particularly by those who see themselves as modern-day successors to the old republic or its ideals.

The Ecuadorian coat of arms incorporated the fasces in , although it had already been in use in the coat of arms of Gran Colombia.

Italian Fascism , which derives its name from the fasces , arguably used this symbolism the most in the twentieth century.

The British Union of Fascists also used it in the s. The fasces , as a widespread and long-established symbol in the West, however, has avoided the stigma associated with much of fascist symbolism , and many authorities continue to display them, including the federal government of the United States.

The fasces typically appeared in a context reminiscent of the Roman Republic and of the Roman Empire. The French Revolution used many references to the ancient Roman Republic in its imagery.

During the First Republic , topped by the Phrygian cap , the fasces is a tribute to the Roman Republic and means that power belongs to the people.

It also symbolizes the "unity and indivisibility of the Republic", [8] as stated in the French Constitution.

In and after , it appears on the seal of the French Republic, held by the figure of Liberty. While it is used widely by French officials, this symbol never was officially adopted by the government.

The fasces appears on the helmet and the buckle insignia of the French Army's Autonomous Corps of Military Justice , as well as on that service's distinct cap badges for the prosecuting and defending lawyers in a court-martial.

The unofficial but common National Emblem of France is backed by a fasces, representing justice. Since the original founding of the United States in the 18th century, several offices and institutions in the United States have heavily incorporated representations of the fasces into much of their iconography.

Above the door leading out of the Oval Office. The mace of the United States House of Representatives , designed to resemble a fasces.

The seal of the United States Tax Court. The Lincoln Memorial with the fronts of the chair arms shaped to resemble fasces.

Flanking the image of Lincoln at the Gettysburg Address memorial.

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